In every discipline, there is the possibility of analysis. In the example here we see an analysis of predator and prey and the cycling population between the two categories. In this analysis using a stock-and-flow dynamic model, the lifecycle of the fox population is dependent upon the lifecycle of the rabbit population. In a very simple analysis we could consider that Foxes are born, they live a certain number of years, and then they die. We could make the same statement in relationship to rabbits. A rabbit is born, it lives a certain number of years and then it dies. But the relationship between rabbits and foxes is critical to the analysis of these two species. As the rabbit population increases, it presents an increased food stock for the foxes (that eat the rabbits). And as the foxes feed on the rabbits, they flourish, and reproduce and their population increases. As more and more foxes are competing for food within the rabbit population, that population will decline. And as the rabbit population declines, it will directly affect the fox population. The foxes that are in competition for food and are feeding off the declining rabbit population will also decline. As the number of foxes diminish from year to year, the rabbit population can increase since its natural predator has decreased. But with an increasing food supply, the foxes will again begin to flourish and reproduce in larger numbers and the cycle repeats.

Stock-and-Flow Simulation of Rabbit and Fox Population Dynamics

The sort of analysis of a predator-prey population to estimate rising and falling of individual species within a local population is not that dissimilar than analysis of the rise and fall of cellular activity within the body. The adaptation of organic materials confined to patches placed on the skin was the outgrowth of research on how to increase (raise) the population of stem cells based on improving the environment so that they could flourish within the body. The research and analysis around a patch showed it would be possible to place a patch on the skin that is capable of absorbing infrared light (body heat) and retransmitting specific wavelengths back into the body. These patches were a revolutionary discovery that proved to be effective by numerous open-label and double-blind studies completed since 2002. These studies can be found at This technology has already been proven to reduce pain, improve sleep, increase energy production, improve the appearance of the skin, increase antioxidant levels and increase peptide synthesis. The adaptation of the patch technology developed by LifeWave has proven to increase the production of a peptide called GHK-Cu, a naturally occurring material in the body proven to activate stem cells in the body.

GHK is an abbreviation of glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine which is a human copper-binding peptide

Research funded by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) has indicated that there
are specific wavelengths of infrared light that could initiate elevation of mitochondrial energy (Whelan HT, Buchmann EV, Whelan NT, et al. NASA light-emitting diode medical applications: From deep space to deep sea. Space Tech. & App Int’l Forum. 2001a; 552:35-45. Whelan HT, Smits RL Jr., Buchman EV, et al. Effect of NASA light-emitting diode irradiation on wound healing. J Clin Laser Med Surg. 2001b Dec; 19(6): 305-14).

Stimulation of mitochondria is important because the mitochondria provide ATP, the basic chemical unit of energy for cells. ATP is the chemical responsible for energy release in injury repair, muscle contraction, peptide production, and pain relief. “It is generally assumed that the formation of a peptide bond requires at least five ATP. Nevertheless, experimental values suggest a much greater ATP requirement for peptide synthesis or related processes (van Milgen, 2002).” It has been shown in this regard that specific wavelengths of light 633nm and 810-890nm can both elevate ATP production, increase peptide production and produce pain relieving effects. LifeWave patches have been found to emit wavelengths of light in these ranges.

It is light at specific wavelengths that create the biological effects and not the device that produce it.

It was observed that waveforms of infrared and visible light produced by organic materials would match biological structures better than the waveforms produced by inorganic materials or electronic devices.

This was a breakthrough discovery that lead to the design and testing that would follow.

Experiments were conducted with specific types of organic sugars and amino acids. Specific solutions were created that were composed of stereoisomers of L-amino acids and D-sugars capable of self-assembly into nano-sized crystals that when activated by body heat emits specific wavelengths of infrared and visible light known to act through phototherapy and photobiomodulation to produce physiological effects in both animals and humans.

In chemistry, isomers are molecules or polyatomic ions with identical molecular formulae – that is, same number of atoms of each element – but distinct arrangements of atoms in space. Stereoisomers are isomers in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space. Stated a different way, stereoisomers are isomers that differ in spatial arrangement of atoms, rather than order of atomic connectivity. One of the most interesting types of isomer is the mirror-image stereoisomers, a non-superimposable set of two molecules that are a mirror image of one another. The existence of these molecules is determined by a concept known as chirality. Chirality essentially means ‘mirror-image, non-superimposable molecules” (

In more detail, isomers are two compounds with the same formula but have a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and exhibit different properties. It is the unique properties of the use of different isomers along with differently sized nano-crystals that are configured within the different patch products that provide photobiomodulation patches with their different effects.

Patches like the X39® are manufactured by impregnating a disc of fabric with a proprietary solution of chiral stereoisomers. The impregnated fabric, in turn, is sandwiched and sealed between two films of high-density medical-grade plastic that is impermeable to moisture and other environmental factors. A layer of medical-grade hypoallergenic adhesive is applied to one side of the patches, so that the patches may be easily and conveniently applied to the surface of the skin (Schmidt D. Biomolecular Wearable Apparatus. US Patent 8734316 B2. May 27, 2014).

Chiral stereoisomer molecules are used in the nanocrystal patches because these chiral nanostructures are optically active and have photophysical properties (Litvinov I. Photophysical properties of chiral semiconductor nanocrystals in biological Environments. 6/19/2016).

Similarly, to transitions between energy levels in an atom, a photon can be emitted or absorbed during charge carrier transitions between energy levels in nanocrystals (Litvinov,p. 12, 2016). The transition frequencies, i.e., absorption or luminescence wavelengths, can be tuned by altering the nanocrystal size. Apart from this, the nanocrystals possess unique optical properties, such as wide absorption spectrum (Litvinov, p. 12, 2016). The proprietary formulas in the LifeWave patches are designed to produce differently sized nano-crystals in the different patch products as can be seen in electron micrographs of LifeWave patches produced by Dr. Marc Stuart in 2013. Nanostructures are usually considered as particles less than 100 nm in dimension. The organically-based optically active nanocrystal mixtures in patches manufactured by LifeWave operate as localized reflectors that absorb and trap a large part of body heat (wideband infrared emission) and reflect a specific part of the spectrum in a narrow band in the infrared spectrum back to the body.

Research published in 2006 by Tulip and Clark confirmed the principle concept of the patches when these scientists demonstrated that solutions of amino acids would form optically and electrically active molecular crystals. LifeWave has pioneered the development of this technology that uses structured bio-molecular nano-crystals to emit specific wavelengths of light for the production of photobiomodulation effects in both humans and animals. When a LifeWave patch is placed on the surface of the skin, the
technology provides the ability to safely transmit specific wavelengths of light to optimize certain biological functions such as energy production, peptide synthesis, and pain control. These devices are essentially passive transmitters that use organic nano-crystal antennas which have both photonic and electronic (dielectric) properties. The nano-crystal antennas in the LifeWave devices absorb infrared radiation (body heat) in the range of 700-20,000 nanometers and emit light in the infrared and visible spectra back into the body. The small nanometer-size crystals in LifeWave patches exhibit spectroscopic properties, such as light absorption and light emission. The term dielectric is used to indicate the energy storing capacity of the material (by means of polarization) (

A dielectric material is a substance that is a poor conductor of electricity, but an efficient supporter of electrostatic fields -an electrostatic field can store energy. An important property of a dielectric is its ability to support an electrostatic field while dissipating minimal energy in the form of heat. (http://
).” LifeWave has developed this new technology for energy production, pain management, sleep improvement, peptide production, stress management
and with the X39® patch, production of the peptide GHK-Cu that turns on (activates) stem cells. LifeWave patches can safely be combined with other therapies. In fourteen years with hundreds of thousands of users, there have never been any reports of drug interactions or interference with implantable medical devices such as pacemakers. So, by introducing the X39® patch, LifeWave is harnessing the power of stem cells to promote healing.

No physician in the history of humanity has ever healed a patient. Only the cells of the patient can heal the patient. Only cells know how to close wounds, understand what to do with insulin and how to destroy pathogens. The best a physician can do, is to move obstacles out of the way of cells (e.g. by surgery), supply materials and weapons to the cells (e.g. drugs and building blocks of life) and leave the fight against disease to the cells. Harnessing the power of the cells is the fundamental basis of Regenerative
Medicine (DR. JOSEPH PURITA –”